SHORT DESCRIPTIONS OF THE EXPEDITION RESSERVE – TAMBOPATA AREA
Tambopata is in Madre de Dios, a Department in south-east Peru. In terms of biological diversity, the forests of Madre de Dios are the richest in the world. The Tambopata Reserved Zone (TRZ) is a very small area (5,500 hectares) within this rainforest. Research over the last 16 years in the TRZ has shown that it contains more species of birds (587), butterflies (1,230) and many other animal groups them any other location of its size on Earth. Over 150 types of tree have been found in a 100 ‘square meter ‘ area. Madre de Dios encompasses one ‘of the World Centers of Plant Diversity identified With results such as these, it is understandable that the Department capital of Puerto Maldonado is known as “the biological capital of the world”. In 1990, the Ministry of Agriculture in Lima declared that an area of 1,479,000 hectares, including the existing Tambopata Reserved Zone, would become protected, as the Tambopata- Candamo Reserved Zone (TCRZ). This area, which also adjoins the Rio Heath National Sanctuary, is only slightly smaller than the Manu National Park and roughly the size of East Anglia, in the UK. -The area has been designated in recognition of its undisturbed populations of wild flora and fauna, and its numerous features of major cultural and scientific importance.
Potentially, much of the new Reserved Area contains a diversity of species . However, the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone extends up into the Andes to the south and contains a whole new range of habitats and species. It is hoped that in the longer term the area will be declared a National Park and ideally an International Biosphere Reserve, this should increase the degree of protection given to the lira, safeguarding its unique range of fauna and flora.
EXPEDITION RESERVE :
- Length: 4 Days/3 Nights
- Type of service: Private or Group
- Location:Southern Peru, Madre de Dios Department, Puerto Maldonado, Tambopata National Reserve
- Activities: Expeditions Reserve ,Chuncho Macaw Lick , night walking, piranha fishing, Sandoval Lake
- Altitude: 183 – 250 m.a.s.l.
- Best time to visit: Every Day
- Departure: Every day
- Minimum of participants :2
- Maximum of participants: 10
- Price per person: USD
Quick Itinerary of the Expedition Reserve
- Day 1: Puerto Maldonado to Expedition Reserve Tambopata
- Day 2: Expedition Reserve Macaw Clay lick Chuncho and Fishing
- Day 3: Expedition Reserve to Sandoval Lake Reserve and Trips by Canoe
- Day 4: Expedition Reserve to Sandoval Lake Reserve Back to Puerto Maldonado
ITINERARY TO EXPEDITION RESERVE 4 DAYS 3 NIGHT
TOURS DAY 1:
Puerto Maldonado to Expeditions Reserve Tambopata
Pick up from the airport and / or bus station transfer to the office Where They can leave some luggage that is not going to take the tour. Land transport, for 2 hours then begin a trip in a motor along the Tambopata River for 10 minutes to get to our lodge, During the journey we can Also see various species of birds like boat: herons, cormorants, wild turkeys, shanshos, buzzards, kingfishers, eagles, Caracaras, etc. Also alligators, turtles and capybaras (the world’s largest rodent .) sunning on the beaches of the river Arrival at our lodge, after settling into our comfortable rooms, we will make a night walk Where some animals are active at night: such as possible: night monkeys, frogs, tarantulas, scorpions, etc. Return to the lodge for dinner. We sleep in our comfortable lodge.
Tours Day 2:
Expedition Reserve Macaw Clay lick Chuncho and Fishing
We leave our lodge very early and later arrive near the mouth of the river Malinowski. Where it is located the following Post “Malinowski” controls. We Also Have the Possibility to use the restrooms or visit the interpretation center.
During our trip we will witness the change in the environment. The Tambopata now flows faster and fans into several branches creating islands covered with flooded forests, lined with large pebble beaches. Perfect for watching the Orinoco geese, cormorants, capybaras and alligators places.
The Collpa Chuncho is a bank of approximately ten meters of mud atop a side arm of the Tambopata River, Where several species of parrots, macaws and parrots gather in a magical display. The most famous visitor is the magnificent scarlet macaw.
These birds have to gather each morning to feed on clay before flying in search of fruits and seeds in the jungle.
This show lasts one to three hours and Follows a specific order. First come the small species like parakeets and parrots parrot lets Eventually Appear later followed by the larger macaws bring significantly this exceptional blast of color, and sound to a dignified end.
Back to our lodge we have lunch, after lunch, return to Puerto Maldonado, and from there travel the Mother of God, approximately on a journey of 30 minutes, then a get to our next lodge “Amazon Tambopata Lodge” where we night in our confortable lodge on the River Madre de Dios.
Tours Day 3:
Expedition Reserve to Sandoval Lake Reserve and Trips by Canoe
After breakfast, we will prepared to visit Lake Sandoval THROUGHOUT the day, from our lodge will travel 10 minutes by boat to reach port on the shores of Lake Sandoval, Where our entry to the Tambopata Reserve “Lago Sandoval” in a hike About 1 hour, then a reach the lake Where we take a canoe paddle to stroll That Through This beautiful lake is home to many birds and animals. Then at noon we will take a lunch in a restaurant in Lake Sandoval, after lunch Those Who wish can swim in the Sandoval lake safely, then return to the lodge for dinner and then a night walk to see some animals and / or insects That come out at night back to our lodge Where we spend the night in our comfortable lodge.
Tours Day 4:
Expedition Reserve to Sandoval Lake Reserve Back to Puerto Maldonado
Early morning after breakfast we walk down the same road back to Puerto Maldonado and from there to the airport and / or bus station. Those with flight and / or bus later could stay on the premises of Tarantula Eco-Hostel, Where you can enjoy a refreshing pool.
Included to Expedition Reserve :
Transport MotorBoat and car
Transfer Round Trips
Meals: 3x Breakfast, 3x Lunch 3x Dinner and drinking water (Note: vegetarian option on request at no additional cost);
Accommodation: 3 nights in the lodge;
First aid kit, including a venom extractor, treating mosquito bite and an antidote for snakebite;
Not Included to Expedition Reserve
Any flight nor airport departure taxes;
Breakfast on the first day and dinner on the last day;
Tips to local staff.
not included entrance fee to Reserve
What do you need Bring to Expedition Reserver?
Mosquito repellent (recommended at least 35% !!)
Long-sleeved cotton shirts (preferably green)
Long cotton pants,
Long cotton socks (to be put on the pants)
Comfortable walking shoes,
Sandals or light shoes,
Rain gear (for example, rain poncho)
Binoculars (also rented)
Camera and charger,
Plastic bags to be used for clothing and a camera,
One hat as protection against sun or rain,
Flashlight (battery replacement)
A mineral water (1 liter minimum)
Pocket money (soles) to buy some drinks
Expeditions Reserve Methods
Clay lick use data was collected from February 2000 to November 2002. Observers arrived before sunrise and recorded the number of birds on the lick every 5 minutes. On 606 mornings the observers remained until the early morning rush of activity ended (7:00– 7:30 AM), while on 280 days the observers remained until the late afternoon (4:30 PM or later).
Additional data from 2003 have been collected and are currently being processed. Over 1000 bird censuses were conducted in the afternoons from January – December 2003 in the areas surrounding TRC. Censuses lasted 10 minutes each and were conducted at 20 different points in the forest. They were conducted in the afternoon at the time of minimum lick use so that birds moving to and from the clay lick would not unduly influence the counts of birds in the forest. Scarlet macaw nests and chick growth were monitored in the forests around Expedition reserve – Research Center from November 1999 to March 2003.
In total 26 nests were monitored and 24 chicks weighed and measured from hatching to fledging.
Crop samples were taken from Scarlet Macaw chicks from December 2003 – February 2004 following the protocol outlined by (Enkerlin-Hoeflich et al. 1999). A total of 29 samples were taken from chicks ranging in age from 20 to 80 days. Results and Discussion and I recorded 16 species of parrots, two guans and three pigeons on the clay lick during data collection, including: Green-winged, Scarlet, Blue and gold, Severe, Red-bellied and Blue-headed Macaws; Mealy, Yellow-crowned, Orange-cheeked (Barraband’s) Parrots; Blue-headed Pionus; White-bellied Caique; White-eyed and Dusky Conures; Amazonian and Dusky-billed Parrotlet; and Cobalt-winged Parakeet.
This includes ALL the common parrot species at the site. On some days over 1,300 parrots were seen arriving at in the area of the lick. In total we logged over 300,000 records of parrots using the lick making this one of the world’s largest data sets on wild parrots. Lick use showed two marked seasons: a high season from August through January and a low season from February through July. These seasons did not match up with the changes from wet season to dry season. Instead I found that the birds’ lick use closely paralleled the abundance of birds in the forest recorded during the afternoon parrot censuses. In fact it looks like low lick use season may be due in part to the fact that many of the parrots “migrate” away from the area.
The reason why the birds leave is unknown, but data from nearby Manu National Park suggest that the period of low lick use and parrot migration away from the area corresponds with a period of very low fruit availability (Terborgh 1983). This suggests that the birds may be leaving the area due to a general lack of food. To date I do not know where the parrots go upon departure.The high season of lick use is apparently due to a mixture of factors. The birds return to the area probably due to an increase in the food supply or in anticipation of breeding or both. However there are marked differences among species in their peak month of lick use: Blue-headed Pionus (Pionus menstruus) peak in July while the three large macaws peak in January. Ten of the twelve species for which we have breeding data show their strongest peak in lick use during the breeding season. This suggests that some physiological need during the breeding season is driving the birds to increase their consumption of soil. I have two hypotheses for the association between lick use and breeding that I will discuss here:
1. Clay lick use increases during breeding because females need additional calcium to make the eggs.
2. Clay lick use increased during breeding because the adults need to feed clay to the chicks.The data on the timing of breeding and clay lick use by Scarlet Macaws shows that the peak in lick use does not occur in November at the time of egg laying, thus making it unlikely that the birds are using the lick as a source of calcium. Instead lick use spikes in .December just as the chicks hatch. However, lick use drops in February about one month before the majority of the chicks fledge. This suggests that the annual peak lick use by ,Scarlet Macaws is due in part to the parents’ need to feed clay to young chicks. This finding is corroborated by the food samples taken from the crops of chicks: chicks from 20 to 30 days old had soil in seven of eight samples collected while only one of eight samples collected from chicks over 50 days contained soil.
The reason why chicks need more soil during the first few weeks of life is unclear, but may be due to nutrient needs or low resistance to toxicity. Chick growth data collected from Tambopata show that chicks grow very quickly when young and that their weight reaches that of adults (about 900 grams) by approximately 50 days of age. This suggests that the greatest nutritional needs of the chick are during these first 50 days. At all ages the parents are feeding the chicks a mix of seeds that probably contain reasonable quantities of toxins. While adult macaws and parrots have a very high resistance to toxins (as much as 50 times higher than adult humans for quinine, (Gilardi et al. 1999), the young chicks may have very low resistance to toxins. If chicks develop their natural resistance to toxins with age, this too could produce a pattern of lick use similar to that found here. The resolution of this dilemma awaits further detailed studies.
In summary, clay lick use in southeastern Peru is highly seasonal. Most species show simultaneous annual lows in lick use during the end of the wet season and beginning of the dry season (April – June). At this time the birds apparently leave the area possibly in response to low food supplies in the area. Annual highs in lick use occur between July and February and differ among species. The peaks in lick use for most species studied coincide with breeding. In particular it seems that adults are feeding clay to their young chicks during the period of maximum growth and perhaps lowest resistance to natural toxins found in their diet.