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TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
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TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
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TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE
SANDOVAL LAKE RESERVE
TAMBOPATA TOURS - MANU NATIONAL PARK - LODGE

Tambopata

The Tambopata Macaw Clay Lick Project – Chuncho Lodge

Developing techniques to increase – Macaw Reproductive rates

Large macaws are among the most spectacular and revered birds in the world. Unfortunately, they are disappearing from many areas of the tropics. For example the Guayaquil subspecies of the Great-green or Buffon’s Macaw (Ara ambigua guyaquilensis) is in imminent danger of extinction (K. Berg pers. com.). In Costa Rica, the Great-green Macaw (A. a. ambigua) has been eliminated from 80% of its former range and only an estimated 200 remain (Powell et al in prep.). In Bolivia the Blue – throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) has been reduced to less than 200 individuals (Hess 1999). In addition, all the blue macaws, Glaucus, Lear’s, Hyacinth and Spix’s, are either extinct or gravely endangered (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998). As a result, there is an urgent need to aid the recovery of macaw populations. The work described here uses three species of large macaws in Peru as a model system to develop techniques that can be used to help the recovery of other macaw species throughout the New World tropics (tambopata lodge chuncho clay licks).

The threats that face macaws are many and include habitat loss, hunting and collecting for the pet trade. Habitat loss takes many forms including clearing for agriculture, cattle ranching and logging. Agriculture, ranching and the subsequent human settlement eliminates the majority of the vegetation but in some instances may leave sufficient food resources to support populations at least over the short term. Tropical logging operations are usually very selective, targeting first the largest examples of marketable trees. This leaves a large amount of vegetation standing including many possible food trees. Macaws are dependant on large, pre-existing tree cavities for nesting (lodge tambopata chuncho clay licks).

In many instances the nest trees they use may be hundreds of years old and even in virgin forests the lack of suitable nest trees limits the number of macaws that can breed each year (Munn et al. 1991). Logging operations that target these large trees do insidious damage to macaw populations. The forests may look health and still have relatively large numbers of macaws, but without suitable nesting sites, the macaw population is doomed to decline to extinction (tambopata chuncho clay lick).

Collection for the pet trade is a major threat to nearly all populations of large macaws (Juniper and Parr 1998). Collection techniques are varied and can target either adults or chicks. Adults are captured in a variety of ways either for food, feathers or to be sold as pets. Snares are placed on suitable perches. In Ecuador collectors set fires at the bases of nests and the smoke is used to knock out or kill the adults (J. Socola pers. com.). In some cases adults are shot in the wing while flying and collected alive. The collection of young for sale is more common than the collection of adults. This is due mostly to the higher demand for young because of the fact that they make better pets (tambopata chuncho lidge clay licks).

The number of macaws taken from the wild can be considerable. At this point it is thought that there are more Blue-throated Macaws in captivity than in the wild, and rumors exist of a single shipment of nearly 200 of these macaws. If this is true, this one shipment alone contained more birds than the current wild population. When young are collected they are taken from nests in a variety of ways. Collectors often free-climb or use a combination of ropes and ladders to get to the nest holes and remove the young. When the collectors cannot gain access to the nests they often cut the entire tree to remove the young (tambopata lodge chuncho clay licks).

The fall results in the death of up to 60% of the chicks (González 1999). Collection for the pet trade is blamed for the disappearance of large macaws from many areas. This direct damage is compounded by the cutting of nest trees by collectors, the natural scarcity of suitable trees and further removal of large trees by logging operations (lodge tambopata chuncho clay licks).

These forces have combined to leave the macaws that do remain with few opportunities to nest. As a result, it is clear that just declaring new protected areas may be insufficient to allow macaw populations to recover from the decades of collection and tree cutting (tambopata lodge chuncho clay lick).

Previous research in southeastern Peru has shown that macaw reproductive rates in undisturbed areas are extremely low. This is due to three main factors: 1) suitable nesting cavities occur at a density of only one per 15 – 20 ha, 2) only about 60% of nests fledge young as predators and parasites combine to kill many chicks, and 3) successful nests usually fledge only one young even when 3 or 4 eggs are laid and the other chicks die of malnutrition (Munn et al. 1991, Nycander et al. 1995). As a result, a population of 200 macaws may produce as few as 8 young per year. From 1989 – 1993 work was conducted at Tambopata Research Center, Peru to develop techniques to increase the reproductive rates of wild macaws (Nycander et al 1995). During this 4 year study researchers 1) developed techniques to use live palm trees to create nest sites for Blue-and-gold Macaws, 2) constructed artificial nest boxes for use by Scarlet Macaws, and 3) rescued, hand-raised and released Blue-and-gold, Scarlet and Green-winged Macaw chicks. All of these resulted in great increases in the reproductive output of these three species in the area surround Tambopata Research Center (chuncho lodge clay lick).

The current project is a continuation of the 1989 study. The goal of the current project is to document the state of the work begun in the early 1990’s and develop additional techniques to increase the reproductive output. In particular the goals are to monitor the use and persistence of palm trees used by Blue-and-gold Macaws, monitor the use of artificial and natural nests by Scarlet and Green-winged Macaws, monitor the survival and reproduction of the hand-raised macaws. In addition the project seeks to develop new methods to save chicks that are doomed to starvation that do not require handraising (tambopata lodge chuncho clay lick).

An alternative to hand-raising is of interest because the hand-raised chicks released at TRC have no fear of humans and are inclined to approach people looking for food. As a result the birds raised in this way could not be released in an areas near population centers where there is a risk of them being captured or killed by people (tambopata chuncho clay licks).

Methods Tambopata Macaw Clay Lick – Chuncho Lodge

Study Area Chuncho Macaw Clay Lick:

The study site is Tambopata Research Center (TRC) located in the extreme western edge of the Amazon basin at the base of the Andes Mountains in southeastern Peru (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge).

The center is located 50 meters from the Tambopata River deep inside the 1.5 million hectare protected area composed of the Tambopata-Candamo Reserve Zone and Bahuaja-Sonene National Park. The site is covered with tropical moist forest with a canopy of 30 – 35 meters and occasional emergent trees rising to 55 – 60 meters (Terborgh 1983, Munn et al 1991). The area boasts healthy populations of three species of large macaws, Blue-and-gold (Ara ararauna), Green-winged (A. chloroptera) and Scarlet (A. macao). The center is located a few hundred meters from a large clay lick where up to 250 macaws can be seen coming to take clay (Munn et al 1991). The abundance of macaws in the area makes this site an ideal location to develop new management techniques as there are sufficient individuals to obtain relatively large sample sizes (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge).

Palm tree nesting – Tambopata – Chuncho – Lodge:

In the early 1990’s when researchers first arrived at Tambopata Research Center Blue-and-gold Macaws were common visitors to the adjacent clay lick, but none nested in the immediate vicinity (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge). In other areas the species nests in dead palms, especially in the large palm swamps dominated by the aguaje palm, Mauritia flexuosa (González 1999).

Researchers located a small palm swamp near TRC but there were no suitable dead trees for nesting. In 1992 the team developed a technique to cut the tops off the palm trees in the hopes of attracting nesting macaws (see Nycander et al 1995 for additional details). Cutting off the top exposes the soft center of the palm to water, fungus, and beetles that all combine to rot the center away and leave only the hard outer layers of the palm. This produces deep tubes useable by nesting macaws. Once the palms rotted out to a point where they were deep enough, the Blue-and-gold Macaws began to use them (Nycander et al 1995).

Since 1992, a total of 42 palms have been cut and they have been used extensively by both Blueand-gold Macaws and Red-bellied macaws (Orthopsittaca [Ara] manilata). Starting in November 1999, nests in the palm swamp were checked every 7 – 10 days. This was accomplished by observing the nest for 4 or more hours in the evening.

During these observations it was noted which nests had activity. The following day the contents of all active nests were checked. Due to the fragile nature of the dead palms and the depth of the nest cavities, the chicks could not removed from the nests. Instead the nests were checked by looking down in to the nests from the top using a combination of flashlights and mirrors as needed.

Nest boxes – Tambopata Chuncho:

As of November 1999 there were 12 PVC nest boxes hanging in the forests surrounding TRC. The nests are made from pieces of 14-inch (35 cm) or 12-inch (30 cm) diameter PVC pipe 1.5 m – 2.6 m long, lined with 2-inch x 2-inch (5 cm) diameter galvanized steel wire mesh to allow the birds to climb up and down the inside. Each box has two entrance holes placed at 90 degrees from each other near the top. The entrances range in size from 12 to 19 cm in diameter. Each box also has a small door near the bottom that allows the researchers to remove the eggs or chicks inside. In early September 1999 each nest was located and briefly observed to record adult activity. Starting 18 November 1999 each active nest was climbed once every 2 – 3 days (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge).

Nests that had no activity were climbed once every 7 days. Each time a nest was climbed the following was recorded: presence or absence of adults, number of eggs, number of chicks, chick weight, chick culmen length, chick tarsus length and chick wing cord length.

During the first month of life chicks that did not continue to gain weight at a rate of 5% per day were checked every day. If they showed weight loss, began to act lethargic and had an empty crop we would check the chick again in the late afternoon. If the birds had not improved by afternoon we would feed the chick, filling its crop with a commercially available diet specially formulated for young macaws made and donated by Harrison Bird Diets. The chick was then checked the following morning and afternoon and fed if the crop was empty and if it failed to show significant weight gain (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge).

Hand-raised macaws – Chuncho Lodge Tambopata:

Since 1992 a total of 34 macaws that would have died of starvation have been handraised and released at TRC (Nycander et al 1995 and unpublished data, Table 1). Of these 6 were Blue-and-gold Macaws, 5 were Green-winged Macaws and 23 were Scarlet Macaws. (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge)

The birds were raised without trying to isolate them from human contact (see Nycander et al 1995 for more details). Since their release some of the birds have continued to return to the buildings at TRC to look for food on an irregular basis. From 26 August – 6 September 1999 and 18 November 1999 – 16 March 2000 observers recorded the date, time, tail condition, band number and species for any macaw that flew in and landed in the lodge buildings. To facilitate reading the small numbers off the metal bands the birds were often attracted closer and distracted by offering a banana. For each bird it was also recorded if they were accompanied by a potential mate. (reserve tambopata – chuncho lodge)

 

 

 

Parrot Behavior at a Peruvian Clay Lick: We documented the behavior of 13 parrot species at a geophagy site along the Tambopata River in southeastern Peru. These species use the lick in one or more multi-species aggregations composed predominantly of (1) large parrots and small macaws (81% of lick use), (2) large macaws (5%), or (3) parakeets and small parrots (5%). Monospecific flocks accounted for only 8% of lick use and lone individuals ,1% of lick use. The multi-species aggregations sorted by body size and were generally composed of species with similar coloration suggesting that group composition was driven by a mix of competition and predation. Three species regularly used the lick in monospecific groups and these had the largest group sizes away from the lick, suggesting a causal relationship between intraspecific sociality and lick use in monospecific groups. All groups were wary when approaching the lick, probably due to the risk from landslides and predators. We suggest that clay lick use strategies are molded by predation risk and competition acting on a suite of species with varying body size, coloration, and gregariousness (Tambopata Macaw Clay Lick).

Chuncho Macaw Clay Lick – Geophagy, the intentional consumption of soil, has been documented for a wide range of mostly herbivorous mammals, reptiles, and birds (Sokol 1971, Klaus and Schmid 1998, Diamond et al.1999, Brightsmith 2004). Hundreds of birds (up to 17 species) gather daily at river-edge ‘clay licks’ to consume soil throughout the western Amazon Basin (Emmons and Stark 1979, Burger and Gochfeld 2003, Brightsmith 2004). The birds, mostly psittacines, apparently consume soil for its high concentration of sodium (Brightsmith and Aramburu´ 2004, Brightsmith et al. 2008), but may also receive protection from dietary toxins (Gilardi et al. 1999) Chuncho Lodge. Aggregations of birds which use clay licks vary greatly in species composition and patterns of lick use, and much of this variation remains unexplained (Burger and Gochfeld 2003, Brightsmith 2004, Brightsmith and Aramburu´ 2004, Lee et al. 2009) chuncho macaws clay lick tambopata.

Chuncho Macaw Clay Lick – Observations suggest the birds’ behavior at clay licks has been molded by predation and competition, but few detailed studies have been conducted (Burger and Gochfeld 2003, Brightsmith 2004, Brightsmith and Aramburu´ 2004). Social forces such as information exchange, search for mates, and parental care favor group formation (Ward and Zahavi 1973, Wright et al. 2003). However, there are many costs to group membership including competition for resources (Grand and Dill 1999, Krause and Ruxton 2002) and disease transmission (Hoare et al. 2000). Clay licks and other geophagy sites provide good opportunities to study mixed species aggregations. We studied the behavior of parrots using a large clay lick along the upper Tambopata River in southeastern Peru in an effort to document lick use strategies for comparison with research at other sites in the region (Burger and Gochfeld 2003) chuncho macaws clay lick tambopata.

METHODS DE TAMBOPATA – CHUNCHO MACAW CLAY LICK:

Study Area.—Tambopata Research Center (13u 089 S, 69u 369 W) is in the Department of Madre de Dios in southeastern Peru in the Tambopata National Reserve (275,000 ha) near Bahuaja Sonene National Park (1,091,000 ha). The area is tropical moist forest near the boundary with subtropical wet forest. The elevation is 250 m asl with 3,200 mm of rain per year and a wet season from October to March (Tosi 1960, Brightsmith 2004). The area contains a mix of mature floodplain forest, successional floodplain forest, Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps, and upland forest (Foster et al. 1994) chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

The clay lick studied was a 500-m long, 25–30 m high, cliff on the right bank (west side) of the upper Tambopata River – Chuncho. The lick was apparently formed by the river’s erosion of recently uplifted Tertiary age alluvial sediments (Ra¨sa¨nen and Salo 1990, Foster et al. 1994, Ra¨sa¨nen and Linna 1995). It consists of two large exposed areas ,150 m in length on the south end and 200 m in length on the north end. The two are separated by a landslide of ,150 m in width chuncho macaws clay lick tambopata. The south end contains a clay layer ,15–17 m high, topped by a band of sand and cobble about 5 m thick. The north end has clay about 8 m high topped by 8 m of sand and cobble – chuncho macaws.

The soils of the clay layer are rich in high cation exchange capacity clays with high sodium levels (Gilardi et al. 1999, Brightsmith et al. 2008) chuncho macaws clay lick tambopata. The slope of the lick face ranges from moderate (,30u) to nearly vertical (80u).

Lick Counts.—Data were collected during December 2001 and 2002, and January 2000 and 2003 from a point ,200 m from the clay lick. Observers arrived before sunrise and stayed until the end of the early morning activity (0700 to 0730 hrs). Observers watched the staging birds and recorded when the first group of birds began to fly in slow circles in front of the lick in anticipation of landing – chuncho macaws clay lick tambopata. Observers counted all birds perched on each section of the clay lick every 5 min (Brightsmith 2004). More detailed location data were collected in December 2002 and January 2003 (n 5 20 mornings) for each bird on the lick to quantify the social group membership of each species using the lick.

Arrivals and Disturbance.—Observers recorded the numbers and species of parrots as they arrived in the area from a point on the opposite river bank, 400 m to the east of the clay lick. It was not possible to record the birds that arrived from forests behind the lick (to the west) – chuncho macaws clay lick tambopata.

Observers recorded the cause of the disturbance whenever .25% of the birds simultaneously flew from the clay lick or surrounding trees – chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

Data Analyses.—The clay lick use by each species was calculated as the total number of ‘bird minutes’ on the lick (Brightsmith 2004). Bird minutes were defined as the number of birds on the lick multiplied by the number of minutes they stayed on the lick (i.e., 4 birds for 15 min each 5 60 bird min). We conducted principal component analysis of the data for birds which simultaneously shared each section of the lick to identify the groups of species which used the lick together – chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

Only principal components with eigenvalues $1 are reported. We tested differences among species for group sizes arriving at the lick using KruskalWallace and Mood’s median test with 95% confidence intervals around the medians using StatGraphics Centurion XV. Normal variables are presented as mean 6 SD, while those that failed Shapiro-Wilks’ test for normality are presented as medians with 95% confidence intervals. Alpha 5 0.05 for all statistical tests chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

TABLE 1. Sociality of parrot species on the clay lick at Tambopata Research Center, Peru during 20 mornings from December 2002 to January 2003. The species are arranged by body mass. ‘Green macaws’ were recorded when observers could not distinguish between Chestnut-fronted and Red-bellied Macaws. Monospecific 5 percent of counts for which the species was recorded on the lick in a monospecific group. Large Parrot 5 percent of counts when the species was part of the large parrot aggregation – chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata. Parakeet and Large Macaw 5 percent of counts for which species were part of the parakeet and large macaw aggregations. Total 5 number of bird minutes recorded for the species. Body masses are from Dunning (1993) and Terborgh et al. (1990). 

Species Mass (g) – Large parrot – Large macaw – Parakeet – Mono-specific – Other – Totals

  • birds Red-and-green Macaw 1,250 40 52 2 7 0 124
  • birds Blue-and-yellow Macaw 1,125 49 45 1 6 0 1,137
  • birds Scarlet Macaw 1,015 56 42 0 2 0 574
  • birds Mealy Amazon 610 96 1 0 4 0 12,471
  • birds Yellow-crowned Amazon 510 79 3 2 9 6 130
  • birds Chestnut-fronted Macaw 430 95 3 0 2 0 2,267
  • birds ‘Green Macaw’ 100 0 0 0 0 336
  • birds Red-bellied Macaw 370 96 0 4 0 0 1,076
  • birds Blue-headed Macaw 250 72 0 28 0 0 18
  • birds Blue-headed Parrot 247 83 13 2 0 2 1,210
  • birds White-eyed Parakeet 157 68 5 8 17 2 11,363
  • birds White-bellied Parrot 155 0 0 43 58 0 40
  • birds Orange-cheeked Parrot 140 69 1 22 1 7 259
  • birds Dusky-headed Parakeet – 108 –  1 – 0 – 92 – 7 – 0 – 537

Totals Macaws (bird minutes) – – 25,400 – 1,727 – 1,555 – 2,580 – 280 – 31,542

RESULTS TAMBOPATA – CHUNCHO MACAW CLAY LICK:

Thirteen species of psittacines used the clay lick in the early morning period (before 0730 hrs, Table 1). Over 99% of all lick use was in groups. Mixed species aggregations accounted for 92% of the total lick use, monospecific groups 8%, and single individuals ,1% (Table 1). Five principal components (eigenvalue . 1) together explained 58% of the variance in group composition on the clay lick (Table 2) chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata. These principal components represent three mixed species aggregations which use the lick as distinct entities. The large parrot aggregation was composed of three abundant species: Chestnut-fronted Macaws (Ara severus), Mealy Amazons (Amazona farinosa), and Red-bellied Macaws (Orthopsittaca manilata). These were regularly joined by up to seven additional species: White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma), Yellowcrowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala), Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus), Blueand-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), Scarlet Macaw (A. macao), Red-and-green Macaw (A. chloropterus), and Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pyrilia barrabandi). This aggregation, represented by PC I, accounts for 18% of the variance in lick use. The large macaw aggregations contained three common species: Red-and-green Macaws, Scarlet Macaws, and Blue-and-yellow Macaws (PC II, 14% of the variance) which were rarely joined by Blue-headed Parrots, Mealy Amazons, Whiteeyed Parakeets, and Chestnut-fronted Macaws.

The principal components analysis identified three parakeet and small parrot aggregations, one with Dusky-headed parakeets (Aratinga weddellii), Orange-cheeked Parrots, and Blueheaded Parrots (PC III, 9% of the variance), one
with White-bellied Parrots (Pionites leucogaster), Blue-headed Macaws (Primolius couloni), and Dusky-headed Parakeets (PC IV, 9% of the variance), and one with Dusky-headed Parakeets, Orange-cheeked Parrots, and White-eyed Parakeets (PC V, 8% of the variance). These three groups were functionally similar: both formed around flocks of Dusky-headed Parakeets or occasionally White-eyed Parakeets and used the same part of the lick. Thus, these groups were considered collectively as the ‘parakeet aggregation’ chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

Ten species were recorded using the lick in monospecific groups, but most were monospecific remnants of the mixed species aggregations. Only three species regularly used the lick in coherent monospecific groups: White-eyed Parakeets chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata,

chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata – Dusky-headed Parakeets, and White-bellied Parrots (Table 2). Single psittacines were recorded on the lick 58 times and these birds were often leading larger groups of birds to the lick (36%) or remained when larger groups abandoned the lick (31%) leaving only 19 instances of single birds using the lick.

We focused on the three mixed-species aggregations as they accounted for .90% of the clay lick use. The three mixed-species aggregations were independent, as they arrived, staged, and descended to the lick separately, and used different areas of the lick. They also rarely reacted to each other’s alarm calls. The behavior of the birds at clay licks can be divided into three distinct phases: arrival in the area, descent to the lick, and lick use – chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

Arrival in the Area.—All birds arrived in monospecific flocks. Multiple species, when seen together, did not perch or stage together indicating they were just casual associations. Observers could not usually detect arrivals of White-bellied Parrots or Orange-cheeked Parrots as they flew lower than other species and arrived quietly. However, all other species regularly arrived flying high above the canopy and were readily detected – chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

Table 2.- Weights for the five principal components which explain the most variance in group composition of psittacines at an avian geophagy site in southeastern Peru. All principal components have eigenvalues .1. Each principal component is identified with a text label which describes the bird aggregation it represents. The most abundant species in each aggregation are shown in bold – chuncho macaw clay lick tambopata.

  •                            PC I                 PC II              PC III               PC IV         PC V
  • Species – Large parrot – Large macaw – Parakeet 1 – Parakeet 2 – Parakeet 3
  • birds Red-and-green Macaw 0.09 0.56 20.03 0.09 0.12
  • birds Blue-and-yellow Macaw 0.18 0.47 0.04 20.01 0.00
  • birds Scarlet Macaw 0.17 0.54 0.11 0.03 0.03
  • birds Chestnut-fronted Macaw 0.55 20.09 20.08 0.16 0.12
  • birds Red-bellied Macaw 0.45 20.15 20.08 0.22 0.21
  • birds Mealy Amazon 0.51 20.20 20.04 0.10 20.05
  • birds Yellow-crowned Amazon 0.15 20.13 0.17 20.14 20.69
  • birds Blue-headed Parrot 0.21 0.13 0.53 20.14 20.34
  • birds Orange-cheeked Parrot 20.03 20.12 0.66 20.15 0.31
  • birds White-eyed Parakeet 0.23 20.22 0.08 20.27 0.21
  • birds Dusky-headed Parakeet 20.15 20.10 0.42 0.43 0.31
  • birds White-bellied Parrot 20.16 20.07 20.04 0.49 20.22
  • birds Blue-headed Macaw 20.01 0.02 0.16 0.59 20.22
  • Percent variance explained – 18 – 14 – 10 – 9 – 8

The members of the large parrot aggregation began to arrive 8.4 6 5.8 min before sunrise (n 5 70 mornings) and usually perched in trees immediately above and behind the clay lick. The median arriving group size was two except for Red-bellied Macaws which was three (Table 3).

The first large macaws began arriving at about the same time as members of the large parrot aggregation (9.3 6 11.7 min before sunrise, n 5 70 mornings). The large macaws continued to arrive throughout the morning at a slow steady rate (1.1 6 0.3 individuals/min, n 5 577 birds over 6 days). Macaws arrived in pairs (61%), singles (30%), and rarely groups of three or four (7%, n 5 291 groups; Table 3).

The members of the parakeet aggregation began to arrive 21.7 6 15.6 min after sunrise (n 5 68 mornings) and staged in short trees at the lick’s left edge. Both common parakeets arrived in large groups: Dusky-headed Parakeet median 5 10, n 5 34 groups, White-eyed Parakeet median 5 22, n 5 65 (Table 3). The arriving groups of parakeets were relatively large, but waited and joined with other conspecifics before moving to the lick.

Our observations suggest many birds spend hours socializing in the trees around clay licks without descending to eat soil. We focus in this paper on birds that consumed soil and do not address the social aspects of gathering near clay licks.

Descent to the Lick.—Most species were able to join more than one type of aggregation, but the three aggregations commonly approached the lick independently and in stereotypical patterns. The members of the large parrot aggregation began to move towards the clay lick by 15.7 6 11.5 min (n 5 66 mornings) after sunrise. There were at least 424 6 152 birds in the area (n 5 6 mornings) at this time. One or more small groups of birds (usually, 20) led the descent by flying in large circles in front of the lick. Birds from the trees joined these groups until there were up to 100 birds in flight. These flights lasted 3.4 6 4.3 min (n 5 62 mornings). The birds flew in slow circles in front of the lick, apparently choosing where to land. Detections of predators or landslides during these flights often caused the birds to choose an alternative section of the lick or break off approach completely.

The large macaw aggregations often formed as groups of 6–29 birds flew to the lick to join the tail end of the large parrot aggregation (19% of 69 mornings). Groups of up to 30 large macaws also initiated lick use on unoccupied sections of the clay lick (29% of 69 mornings). The latter occurred ,50 6 23 min after sunrise (n 5 26 mornings) when they staged and flew to the lick in a manner similar to that described for the large parrot aggregation.

Members of the parakeet aggregation descended to the left edge of the lick starting ,101 6 21 min (n 5 34 mornings) after sunrise. These groups did not engage in exploratory flights like the large parrot aggregation or large macaw aggregation, and instead moved deliberately through the trees progressively closer to the lick and then flew directly from the trees to the lick (usually a distance of ,20 m). There were at least 217 6 120 parakeets in the area (n 5 5 mornings) by the time the first parakeet flocks descended to the lick.

Lick Aggregation Dynamics.— Groups of birds on the lick were fluid; large numbers of birds flew regularly between the surface of the clay lick and the adjacent trees. Some birds took pieces of clay and carried them to the trees for consumption (chuncho clay macaw).

Thus, the maximum number of birds on the lick at any one time was substantially less than the total number of birds in the area. Entire feeding aggregations often abandoned the lick in response to alarm calls (chuncho clay macaw). No apparent cause for the alarm (n 5 1,060 disturbances) was detected in 90% of cases and the birds usually returned to the lick almost immediately. Documented causes of disturbance were rockslides (4%), raptors (2%), other large birds (2%), and people or boats (1%).

The large parrot aggregations formed on 97% of mornings (n 5 71) and accounted for 80% of the total lick use. Additional birds flew directly to the lick once the first birds landed, and numbers on the lick increased rapidly (152 6 85.2 individuals on the lick 10 min after start, n 5 65 mornings). Birds continued to arrive in the area and perch in the trees even after the first birds began to use the lick. At least 951 6 262 birds (range 5 791–1,428; n 5 6 mornings) arrived per morning of which 92% were species that joined the large parrot aggregation (874 6 260 birds, range 5 621–1,336; n 5 6 mornings). The daily maximum number of birds simultaneously on the lick in the large parrot aggregation averaged 192 6 86 (range 5 24 to 497, n 5 69 mornings).

The large parrot aggregation used the lick for 59.6 6 19.2 min (n 5 46 mornings). The three large macaws used the lick in the early morning as part of the large parrot aggregation (50% of total early morning lick use) or in aggregations dominated by large macaws (49% of total early morning lick use, Table 1). The aggregations dominated by macaws formed on 46% of 71 mornings and accounted for 5% of the total lick use. The number of birds on the lick increased within the first 5 min (12 6 9 at first detection, n 5 28 mornings) and remained fairly stable thereafter (14 6 7, n 5 11, 10 min after first detection). The average maximum number of individuals was 17 6 10 (n 5 33 mornings). About 10% of the total birds that arrived in the vicinity of the lick were large macaws (96 6 24 birds, range 5 66–122, n 5 6 mornings). The large macaw aggregations lasted 19 6 13 min (n 5 33 mornings).

The parakeet aggregations formed on 47% of 71 mornings and accounted for 5% of the total lick use. The majority of the birds in the parakeet aggregation were flocking parakeets and these flocks were restless, usually remaining on the lick for only a few minutes before taking flight and returning to the lick or adjacent trees. The average number of the birds on the lick, despite these fluctuations, remained fairly stable with time (27 6 25 birds, n 5 35 mornings, ,5 min after descending to the lick vs. 23 6 21 birds, n 5 8 mornings, 10 min later). About 36% of all birds arriving at the lick were species that joined the parakeet aggregation (340 6 240 birds, range 5 95–653, n 5 6 mornings). The maximum number of birds on the lick in parakeet aggregations averaged 40 6 26 (range 5 3 to 138, n 5 34 mornings). The parakeet aggregation used the lick for 16.2 6 11.4 min (n 5 34 mornings) before they dispersed.

Spatial Distribution parrot.—The clay lick was .1 km in length. However, 85% of the total clay lick use occurred on only four small areas, totaling only 18% of the exposed cliff. Each aggregation regularly used the same few lick areas (chuncho clay macaw parrot). The large parrot aggregation used two sections with exposed clay 9.8 to 15.2 m and 1.4 to 8.3 m above the cliff base. Neither section had vegetation immediately adjacent to the area used by the birds. The large macaw aggregation used two tall center sections of the lick with exposed clay 7.8 to 15.7 m high (chuncho clay macaw parrot).

Both were isolated from surrounding vegetation. Large macaw aggregations did not form on the lower portion of the lick. The parakeet aggregation used the far left edge of the lick almost exclusively (chuncho clay macaw parrot). This section had exposed clay 8.6 to 16 m high and trees immediately adjacent to it (chuncho clay macaw parrot).

Lick Use by Other Pssitacines.—The Whitebellied Parrot was uncommon on the lick (Table 1). It was difficult to detect when arriving, but apparently arrived in groups of up to 10 (Gilardi and Munn 1998; DJB, pers. obs.). This species did not depend on joining with other birds to use the lick. Small groups perched in the trees on the left edge of the lick and remained vigilant while a few individuals at a time descended to the lick (2.8 + 2.0 individuals, n 5 23). This species usually used the lick in monospecific groups (47%) or with the parakeet aggregation (36%, Table 1). This species also use the lick until ,1000 hrs, well after termination of the early morning activity (Brightsmith 2004).

 

amazon wildlife macaw clay lick tambopata lodge sandoval lake reserve

Guacamayos Collpa son cada vez más amenazada de peligro y, en algunos casos, la extinción debido en gran parte a la mala tasa de reproducción y los niveles cada vez más elevados de la deforestación y la explotación. Como una forma de combatir las poblaciones cada vez más escasos, las técnicas de conservación de guacamayos se han aplicado en algunos lugares del Sur y América Central. El Proyecto Guacamayo de Tambopata en la región de Madre de Dios del Perú ha sido la fuerza principal de este esfuerzo de conservación de guacamayos. Sus esfuerzos en el apoyo a la proliferación de esta especie han incluido la protección y gestión del hábitat guacamaya, la construcción de nidos artificiales guacamayo, y la mano de los hijos de los pollitos de guacamayo en cautividad para su reintroducción posterior a la naturaleza. El creciente nivel de contacto humano con la ecología de las especies de guacamayas en Tambopata, Perú ha planteado algunas preocupaciones acerca de lo beneficioso que las estrategias de reproducción y cría artificiales son a la conservación general de guacamayos. En este trabajo, los efectos negativos y positivos de las estrategias de conservación de la guacamaya artificiales que tienen lugar en el Centro de Investigación de Tambopata se analizan a fin de evaluar si el aumento de la atención humana para los guacamayos en esta región de la Amazonía peruana.

Antecedentes de Guacamayos Collpa Tambopata:

macaw clay lick chuncho tambopata amazon wildlife sandoval lake lodge and manu national parkHay seis géneros totales de guacamaya: Anodorhynchus, Cyanopsitta, Ara, Orthopsittaca, Primolius y Diopsittaca, todas las cuales son nativas de Centro y Sur América, partes del sudeste de México, y anteriormente el Caribe. Su relativamente tamaño grande, que sobresale larga cola, y hermoso plumaje vívido color marcar estos espectaculares miembros de la (loro) familia Psittaciforme. El género neotropical Ara contiene el mayor número de especies, diez, dos de los cuales ya se han ido extinto. Guacamayos están en un alto riesgo de extinción debido principalmente a dos aspectos de su propia ecología, incluyendo una alta selectividad para el hábitat de anidación y baja reproductiva tasa, y las influencias antropogénicas, es decir, la destrucción del hábitat por la deforestación y el comercio ilegal de mascotas.

Los diseños intrincados de los guacamayos los distinguen del resto de su loro familia. Tanto sus plumas de colores y de parche facial distintivo se dice que son tan únicas como una huella dactilar. Sin embargo, estas diferencias son tan sutiles que dos guacamayos son prácticamente indistinguibles unos de otros. El rango de tamaño de Guacamayos varía de las especies más pequeñas, el guacamayo de hombros Rojo, o Macaw de Hahn (Diopsittaca nobilis), de 30 a 35 cm de longitud, a la más grande, la guacamaya roja (Ara macao), de 81 a 96 cm en longitud. Más de la mitad de la longitud de un guacamayo es atribuible a su larga cola, que, junto con su impresionante envergadura, lo convierte en una, volante ágil apt con la capacidad de alcanzar velocidades de hasta 56 kilómetros por hora graduado. Guacamayos tienen pies zigodáctilos, con dos dedos de los pies apuntando hacia adelante y dos hacia atrás señalando que, de funcionar como manos, les permiten captar fácilmente los alimentos y llevar artículos a la boca, así como la perca sólidamente sobre y caminan sobre ramas de árboles.

chuncho Macaw Clay Lick tambopata reserve sandoval lake lodge and manu park and amazon peruA diferencia de la mayoría de las aves grandes, guacamayos no son aves de rapiña, sino más bien generalista herbívoros (Gilardi, 2012). Aparte de una pequeña cantidad de caracoles e insectos, su dieta consiste principalmente de frutas, bayas, palma tallos, flores, néctar, follaje y frutos secos encontrados en su entorno selva. Sus poderosos picos angulares, con mordida estimada fuerza hasta aproximadamente 500 a 700 psi, apoyar la dieta de la guacamaya, lo que permite que se rompan abrir incluso las más duras cáscaras de nuez de Brasil con facilidad. Sus lenguas secas, escamosas en realidad contener una pequeña hueso que le permite funcionar casi como un pequeño dedo, una herramienta útil para lamiendo bocados de los alimentos en sus picos. Como una manera de disminuir la dieta competencia, guacamayos tienden a alimentarse de frutos verdes y nueces duras que son demasiado difícil para la mayoría de las otras criaturas en su hábitat para comer.

En las tierras bajas de la Amazonía peruana (el foco de este trabajo), muchos de los frutos-bajo madura y presente los frutos secos en la dieta guacamaya contienen toxinas y otros materiales cáusticos que las plantas se han adaptado como la defensa física y química mecanismos. La capacidad para digerir estos frutos tóxicos permite a los guacamayos para explotar una abundancia de alimentos ricos en nutrientes, a través de las dos estaciones lluviosas y secas (Gilardi, 2012). Mientras que los guacamayos son capaces de digerir estas sustancias, pueden causar problemas dietéticos graves si se ingiere en grandes cantidades. Como una manera de neutralizar chuncho Macaw Clay Lick tambopata reserve sandoval lake lodge and amazon peruestas toxinas, guacamayos comen arcilla rica en sodio fuera de los márgenes de los ríos, también conocidos como “collpas” o “collpas”, que neutralizan estas toxinas; las partículas de arcilla en realidad se unen junto con las toxinas, lo que impide la absorción de las toxinas, que se pasan con la materia fecal (Brightsmith, 2003). Mientras que la arcilla de las dietas de estos guacamayos ‘son ricos en antioxidantes, los guacamayos parecen ser más atraídos a la arcilla con alto contenido de sodio en lugar de más alto contenido de antioxidantes (Powell et al. 2009). Estos hallazgos, así como evidencia de guacamayos se alimentan de la sal de las minas de sal, han dado lugar a teorías de ansias de sodio en la dieta Guacamayo. Tanto si se trata de antioxidantes o la satisfacción de un apetito salado, guacamayos se ven obligados a congregarse en collpas casi a diario, con una fuerte influencia de las condiciones climáticas y las condiciones de cría (Brightsmith, 2004).

La Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres (CITES) ha enumerado 7 especies de guacamayos en su Anexo II, que enumera las especies que no están necesariamente amenazadas de extinción, pero tienen un alto riesgo de extinción a menos que el comercio es monitoreado de cerca. Apéndice I, que enumera las especies que son la mayoría en peligro crítico y en peligro de extinción, contiene 11 especies de guacamayos, 3 de los cuales (el guacamayo cabeza azul, el guacamayo de frente roja, y La guacamaya roja) son endémicas de la región de Tambopata.

amazon wildlife chuncho Macaw Clay Lick tambopata reserve and sandoval lake lodgeUno de los principales impulsores de las poblaciones menguantes de guacamayos es su forma natural de baja tasa de reproducción. Guacamayos son generalmente altamente selectivo de su hábitat de anidación, prefiriendo los nidos profundos y secos de árboles centenarios que sólo se producen en abundancia de aproximadamente una por cada 12 a 20 hectáreas de hábitat del bosque lluvioso. Esta selectividad de hábitat adecuado hace que sea difícil para los guacamayos para anidar y críar joven. Incluso cuando los guacamayos hacen nido, por lo general sólo una pequeña fracción de sus huevos sobrevivir, debido a la depredación de los huevos por arrendajos, cuervos, y tucanes. Incluso si los huevos sobreviven hasta la eclosión, los padres a menudo sólo cuidar y alimentar a uno o dos de estos huevos (generalmente el más fuerte de los novatos), dejando a los más pequeños de morir de desnutrición.

Mientras que la tasa reproductiva naturalmente bajos pone poblaciones de guacamayo en desventaja, los mayores impulsores de su peligrosidad son antropogénicos: a saber, la destrucción del hábitat y la explotación para el comercio de mascotas. Con barra agrícola y quema, la urbanización y proyectos como la Carretera Interoceánica Sur, la tasa de deforestación en el Perú se ha incrementado significativamente de 0,14 por ciento en 2005 a 0,22 por ciento en los últimos años. La Carretera Interoceánica, que se completó en julio 2011, los recortes a través de la reserva de Tambopata y ha destruido gran parte de los ecosistemas y la biodiversidad en esta región. Además de los proyectos como estos, selectiva la tala en la Amazonía peruana a menudo se dirige a los escasos árboles centenarios que guacamayos dependen para anidar.

chuncho Macaw Clay Lick tambopata reserve sandoval lake lodge in amazon travel, amazon wildlife, amazon peruMientras que las listas de la CITES la gran mayoría de las especies de guacamayas ilegal para el comercio, la falta

de la aplicación de esta normativa ha llevado a la proliferación del comercio de especie en peligro. En Bolivia, una potencia en el comercio de aves de América del Sur, vigilancia del comercio loro mascota de agosto 2004-julio 2005 encontró que el 94% de Se cree que los individuos de loros que han sido atrapados en las especies silvestres y varios presente en el comercio fueron listadas como en peligro, como el guacamayo jacinto, el Guacamayo azul y amarillo, y la guacamaya roja (Hennessey y Herrera, 2007).

Este estudio, que muestra el alto nivel de comercio loro ilegal en Bolivia, sugiere que esto es probablemente cierto para el Perú y otros mercados que reciben del comercio, tales como Brasil. En el contrabando ilegal de guacamayos comercializados de forma ilícita, el 90% de los guacamayos no lo hacen sobrevivir debido a las condiciones peligrosas de transporte. El precio actual de una rara especies de guacamayos pueden ser de hasta $ 50.000 en el mercado de comercio ilegal. Una estimación realizada por el Programa Ambiental de Estados Nacionales precio lo ilegal anual contribución del comercio de mascotas en entre $ 5-8 billion. (Oldfield, 2002, página 13).  Estos precios altos ofrecen grandes incentivos para los comerciantes ilegales, especialmente cuando sanciones son mínimas o inexistentes.

amazon wildlife chuncho Macaw Clay Lick tambopata reserve sandoval lake lodgeEstas amenazas a las poblaciones de guacamayo llevaron Eduardo Nycander para iniciar el Proyecto Tambopata Macaw en 1989, con los objetivos de la recopilación de datos sobre la ecología e historia natural de guacamayos para que las aplicaciones de conservación. El proyecto se ubica en el río Tambopata en el centro de un sitio de reserva importante en la región Madre de Dios en Perú, rodeado de acres de selva virgen. Este proyecto dio lugar a la construcción del Centro de Investigación de Tambopata para albergar equipo de investigación del proyecto. Como Nycander comenzó a concentrarse en el establecimiento del ecoturismo. empresa Rainforest Expeditions, como una manera de asegurar fondos para el Tambopata Centro de Investigación, pasó sobre el liderazgo del proyecto para Donald Brightsmith de Texas A & M University.

Desde su aceptación de la antorcha TMP, Brightsmith ha tomado el nivel de investigación guacamaya a nuevas alturas, la publicación de innumerables obras en observaciones de primera mano de su equipo de comportamiento guacamaya, la fisiología, hábitos de reproducción, y la filogenia. los ubicación del proyecto en la cuenca amazónica peruana es ideal para la investigación de guacamayos, con la más grande collpa de guacamayos conocida arcilla, la “Collpa Colorado”, justo en el río desde el puerto de la CVR. La investigación realizada en este colpa visitado con frecuencia ha llevado a información recién adquirida durante más de 15 especies diferentes de guacamayos. Además, varios diferentes proyectos de cría de guacamayos se han implementado con el fin de educar a las cifras de población cada vez más escasos. El nuevo enfoque para el proyecto bajo Brightsmith está dirigido a proporcionar oportunidades para proyectos de satélites de otros países de América del Sur para difundir los esfuerzos de conservación de la TMP a otras áreas de hábitat amenazado guacamayo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Travel in Style to Sandoval Lake Lodge: Select Experiences are private adventures that reveal the essence of a destination through cultural and active discoveries. These private and independent explorations offer you insider access to enjoy a city or region and give you the freedom of a flexible itinerary the jungle trips. Choose your preferred departure date and experience Selects on their own or as a complement to other travel of amazons.

Overview Sandoval Lake Lodge:

Extraordinary sights, colors, and sounds surround you on this true ecoadventure in the Amazon Basin of southeastern Peru—from river shore to treetops. From your base in a comfortable and contemporary lodge, you explore the rainforest on foot, by canoe, and suspended safely in the treetop canopy, as you learn about the incredible diversity of the Tambopata National Reserve, a conserved area the size of Connecticut that’s home to 600 species of birds, 200 mammal species, and 1,200 butterfly species! Part of an even larger protected corridor running from central Peru to central Bolivia that is home to over 40 ethnic groups, this is a perfect place to learn about the Amazon’s biodiversity and the efforts to protect this vast and precious region.

Arrival in Puerto Maldonado and transfer to Sandoval Lake Lodge:

Upon arrival of your flight into Puerto Maldonado, the gateway city to Peru’s Amazon Basin, you are met and check in for your stay at your lodge’s airport welcome center, the Sandoval Lake. From the boarding wharf, you are immediately immersed in the rainforest ecosystem, as a 45-minute boat ride along the Madre de Dios River brings you to Sandoval Lake Reserve Amazonica lodge. After a short briefing, you settle into your beautiful cabana and enjoy lunch in the dining room. Relaxing from the heat of the day with a siesta, you emerge for a refreshing tea time and afternoon excursion. After gathering with your private guide, you can choose from 14 different excursions offered at the lodge.

Highly recommended on this first day is a guided walk along the lodge’s trail system into the Sandoval Lake Reserve Amazonica natural area—a 42,008-acre private reserve adjacent to the Tambopata Nature Reserve, the “Biodiversity Capital of Peru”. An excellent introduction to the forest environment, the trail winds past exotic trees—such as the super-tall shihuahuacos and the strangely shaped strangler figs—and your guide points out numerous birds and exotic insects.

Later, on your first night, a twilight river excursion is suggested—a guided boat ride on the Madre de Dios river. You can witness the transformation from a diurnal to a nocturnal world; animals and birds of the daytime give way to species welladapted to the night. While learning about their behavior, you search for nightjars, owls, capybaras, and up to three different caiman species. Dinner is served in the main dining room from 7:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m., and afterwards you may retire early to your private cabana, or share your rainforest experience with other guests and interpreters in the Amazon pavilion’s lounge, as you listen to the intriguing sounds of the jungle at night.

Sandoval Lake Reserve Amazonica, Tambopata National Reserve:

An award-winning jungle lodge that combines luxury with simplicity is centered around its main pavilion with oversized windows, a spacious dining room, and inviting lounges constructed of local materials with cutting-edge design and technology. Connected by raised walkways, private cabanas—inspired by native Amazon design—offer screened porches and hammocks, ceiling fans, warm water in private bathrooms, canopy mosquito netting, and ample amenities such as plush robes, quality bedding, umbrellas, and rainforest-rubber slippers, to name a few. The on-site spa offers a range of treatments using local products. The kitchen creatively uses fresh ingredients in local and international dishes; and cocktails can be enjoyed on the first-floor bar or comfortable lounge couches.

Amazon Rainforest guided excursions Sandoval Lake Lodge – Tambopata Lodge:

You can wake up when you wish—breakfast begins at 5:30 a.m. for early risers who want to avoid the heat—and enjoy nature at its fullest. This morning’s suggested excursion is a visit to Sandoval Lake Lodge in the Tambopata National Reserve. With your guide, you board a wooden long canoe and glide across the mirror-like oxbow lake that is home to the endangered giant river otter, as well as red howler monkeys, red-bellied macaws, anacondas, side-neck turtles, and black caimans.

Returning to the lodge for lunch, in the afternoon you can visit the remarkable Sandoval Lake Lodge Canopy Walkway. In partnership with National Geographic, Sandoval Lake Lodge has created one of South America’s most extensive and safest canopy walkways: suspended at about 100 feet, in the crowns of the tallest trees, are seven hanging bridges. Ascending the first of two towers, you enter the treetop realm. For more than a quarter mile, you literally walk through the rainforest canopy on the suspension bridge network linking eight observation platforms. During this hour-and-a-half expedition, species to look for are colorful toucans, woodpeckers, trogons, monkeys, and sloths. If you wish, you may extend your excursion and watch the sunset from one of the towers. This evening, back at the lodge, you can enjoy the daily nature presentation in the Eco Center and then happy hour, followed by a dinner of carefully prepared local cuisine.

Amazon Rainforest Guided Excursions:

This morning, you can set off on a trip to Gamitana Creek, located 25 minutes by boat from the lodge. For one and a half hours, you follow the rainforest along the banks of a winding, dark-water creek that is home to piranha, caiman, turtles, and birds, all the way to the Sanipanga landing point. You then navigate back downstream, observing the abundant flora and fauna along the way. Continuing to Gamitana Farm, a short, guided tour introduces you to local farmers who demonstrate how they grow fruits and vegetables in this lush environment. After lunch at the lodge, a trip to Hacienda Concepcion reveals over 200 different plant species and the many uses and benefits of much of this local flora.

Follow this up with a 30-minute canoe trip to look for turtles, sun grebes, nightjars, and exotic herons. You may also wish to indulge in one of the many treatments offered at the lodge’s river-view spa, perhaps perfectly timed at sunset. Later, for your last night, a “Rainforest by Night” excursion takes you through the Sandoval Lake Lodge Ecological Reserve for approximately two hours. You can experience the mystery of the animal activity and unique species that awaken in the rainforest only after dark, creating an amazing symphony of nocturnal forest sounds.

Departure from the Amazon Rainforest and transfer to Puerto Maldonado:

After your last full breakfast at the lodge, a 45-minute trip by boat along the Madre de Dios River returns you to Puerto Maldonado, where you may have time to visit the Sandoval Lake Lodge. Peru boasts the greatest variety of butterflies in the world, with 3,700 known species, and many of these can be seen at the Butterfly House, a showcase for the variety, beauty, and adaptability of these fascinating insects.

Note: The order of activities may and can be changed or cancelled based on weather.

Madre de Dios has great biological and cultural diversity that the Peruvian State conserved across five protected natural areas. This unique feature of the region can enjoy nature to enjoy unique landscapes and lush flora and fauna in their natural habitat. Besides adventure activities like canoeing or kayaking, tirata or zipline and climbing trees or tree dimbing, among hear you in the Peruvian jungle.

The National Park of Manu, Sandoval Lake Reserve and the Tambopata National Reserve, are three of the most protected natural areas visited the Amazon in Peru. In the Manu Park tourists seeking contact with wildlife in its natural state and customs of the native communities; while in Tambopata are interested in experiencing nature without sacrificing comfort or comfort (PROM PERU 2005). In the region of Madre de Dios, tourism represents a remarkable income, the more than 39,000 tourists visited the Tambopata National Reserve in 2013 used accommodation, food, transport and guidance, provided by local businesses with inputs and staff region. This shows that the tourism resources of Madre de Dios are important for the development of sustainable tourism, which is characterized by promoting respect for nature, provide quality services, and a source of income to local populations and therefore to the region.

This information SANDOVAL LAKE describe the main tourist resources of the three provinces of Madre de Dios and tourist activities that can be performed there. Although currently most of the sightseeing around places like Lake Sandoval is concentrated, have identified more than 120 tourist resources that are already used and more than 100 tourism potential for the Sandoval Lake, so it is up to everyone protect this natural and cultural heritage of the Amazon region of Peru.

Madre de Dios is located in the south east of Peru, in the Amazon Basin, has areas of high and low jungle. To the north with Ucayali and Brazil; on the east by Brazil and Bolivia, west to Cusco; and south Cusco and Puno. Its capital, Puerto Maldonado, is at the confluence of the Madre de Dios and Tambopata. It was declared by the Congress “Capital of Biodiversity of Peru” by Law N ° 263ii, portener one of the forests of the country.

  • Created: December 26 deigi2. Decree signed by President Billingurst 85300.54 km2 1.3 inhabitants / km2
  • Area: inhabitants. 121.183 (Projection to 2013, IN The 2007)
  • Population Density Population: Puerto Maldonado
  • Capital Region: Manu
  • Provinces: Tahuamanu and Tambopata
  • Climate: Tropical, warm and humid. The average annual temperature in the capital is 26 ° C with a maximum of 38 ° C in August and September and a low of 21 ° C, with rain from December to March. In exceptional seasons cold air masses from the south occur during the months of July and August where temperatures can reach up to 8 ° C.

The original population of Madre de Dios is formed by Harakmbut, Yine and Matsiguenka ethnic groups spread over 31 native communities that still maintain their traditional customs and languages. This region was known as Antisuyo during the Inca Empire, then from the arrival of the first explorers in the mid 1800s, economic activities are mining. So times as the “era of rubber” since the late 1800s and early 1900s, the “boom timber” between 1970 and 1990 and the “gold rush” is marked since the 60s, with a boom since 2009 to date.

PUERTO MALDONADO – MADRE DE DIOS

It is one of the major trading centers of the Amazon. It bears the title Officer Capital of Biodiversity of Peru in recognition of important records of flora and fauna found in the forests of the department, especially in the Manu.

Notes on the organization of resources in this guide SANDOVAL LAKE:

  • The attractions follow the classification of types of resources the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (MINCETUR)
  • Then, under the name of each resource, its location indicated in the (s) province (s) and (the) district (s) where it is located as follows: Province (s) – District (s)
  • Then, according to the degree of influx of visitors, starting with the most visited national park as manu attractions sandoval lake reserve, the reserve tambopata.
  • In most cases there is more than one route to a resource, but the most used and / or known SANDOVAL LAKE route is described.
  • This guide was made based on the inventory list of tourist resources of the Regional Tourism Madre de Dios which has over 100 resources identified here include only the main natural and cultural attractions that are already visited or are need to value the development of the entire region Madre de Dios.

NATURAL SITES OF MADRE DE DIOS LAKE SANDOVAL

1. Protected Areas
1.1. Tambopata National Reserve
1.2. Bahuaja Sonene National Park
1.3. Manu National Park
1.4. Communal Reserve Amarakaeri
2. Lagos or Conchas and Streams
2.1. Lake Sandoval
2.2. Lake three Chimbadas
2.3. Lake Cocococha
2.4. Lake Sachavacayoc
2.5. Lake Condemned
2.6. Pastora Great Lake
2.7. Tupac Amaru Lake
2.8. Lake Valencia
2.9. Lake Madama
2.10. Lake Huitoto
2.11. Lake or Lake Salvador
2.12. Lake or Cocha Otorongo
2.13. Lake or Cocha Machuwasi
2.14. Lake Pacahuara
2.15. Quebrada El Gato – Tambopata
2.16. Quebrada El Mirador
2.17. Quebrada Lord of the Summit
3. Collpas
3.1. Colipa Macaw Colorado
3.2. Colipa Macaw Chuncho
3.3. Lick Palmeras Sandoval
3.4. Macaw Clay Lick Pariamanu
3.5. Mammal Clay Lick PCV Pakitza
3.6. Tapir clay lick Tambo Senke
3.7. Mammals lick Inusuy Iberia
4. Natural Viewpoints
4.1. Mirador Miguel Grau
4.2. Natural Mirador Amaneewaja
4.3. Mirador Santa Rosa
4.4. Natural Mirador CICRA
5. Beaches
5.1. Playa Cayman
5.2. Virgen del Carmen Playa
5.3. Playa Hermosa Large
6. Rivers
6.1. Madre de Dios River
6.2. Rio Tambopata
6.3. Manu River
7. Cultural events and folklore of Native Communities
7.1. Native Community of Infierno
7.2. Native Community Palma Real
7.3. Native Community Tres Islas
7.4. Native Community Boca Pariamanu
7.5. Medical Center Ñape
7.6. Native Community Shintuya
7.7. Native Community Shipetiari
7.8. House Matsiguenka
7.9. Machiguenga Native Community Palotoa – Teparo
7.10. Native Community Diamante
8. Archaeological sites
8.1. The Petroglyphs Pusharo
9. Parties
9.1. Feast of St. J ohn
10. Historic Sites
10.1. Puerto Maldonado
10.2. Pueblo Viejo
11. Architecture and urban spaces
11.1. Square of Tambopata
11.2. Square of Iberia
11.3. Municipal Obelisk of Biodiversity
11.4. Integration Bridge Peru – Brazil
11.5. Tourist Malecón Iñapari Three Borders
12. List of flora and fauna
13. Holiday Calendar
14. Glossary of Madre de Dios Sandoval Lake

Recommended by TripAdvisor Sandoval Lake

BIODIVERSITY DEL TAMBOPATA BAHUAJA SONENE (PERUVIAN AMAZON)

The Madre de Dios region, where the Tambopata National Reserve is located, is recognised as the “biodiversity capital of  Peru”, supporting 30% of Peru’s biodiversity despite only covering 7% of its national territory. It is home to some of the most inspiring, important and threatened in Bahuaja Sonene Tambopata

Bahuaja Sonene Tambopata

species in the world, including giant river otters and a staggering 209 species and subspecies of monkey, including howler, squirrel and spider monkeys and several species of marmoset. There are 21 threatened species found on the IUCN Red List including jaguars, giant armadillos, maned wolves and blue macaws. The project maintains healthy ecosystems that shelter populations of large mammals
that were extensively hunted due to the high value of their skins and furs. The region also hosts nearly 35% of all Peru’s reptiles, and 40% of the country’s frogs, toads, salamanders and other amphibians. The Tambopata National Reserve is characterised by a rich diversity of flora species as well as fauna, with over 1200 plants identified so far in Bahuja sonene tambopata.

COMMUNITIES OF THE TAMBOPATA BAHUAJA SONENE   (AMAZONIA PERUANA)

More than 11,000 people in 50 communities live in the buffer zone of the TambopataBahuaja project, including 4 indigenous communities whose livelihoods will directly or indirectly benefit from the project. The project aims to create over 2000 jobs for cocoa farmers and 10 control posts and park guards’ centres, making a material difference to the welfare of local families by increasing their income through sustainable economic activities promoted by the REDD+ project. The project marks the beginning of a substantial improvement in local capacity and a pathway for the development of sustainable livelihoods for these local communities away from slash and burn agriculture

FLORA   TAMBOPATA BAHUAJA SONENE (AMAZONIA PERUANA )

The Tambopata River in Madre de Dios near the Puno foothills is riddled with clumps of bamboo, the exclusive habitat of a variety of species of birds and mammals. The area features mature flooded forest and jungle typical of lower cloud forest. Flora in the national reserve  Bahuja Sonene is fairly typical of the southwest Amazon Basin. 8 The Heath River and surrounding plains are a unique ecosystem in Peru. The pampas are pastures that are periodically flooded, and small groves of trees with varied plant life grow in isolated clumps on the plain. The protected area is home to a wide diversity of plant life, including exploited forest species such as cedar (Cedrela odorata), mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), tornillo (Cedrelinga sp.),Brazil nut (Bertholetia excelsa), palm trees such as the pona (Iriartea ventricosa), aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa), huasaí (Euterpe sp.) and ungurahui (Jessenia bataua).

FAUNA  TAMBOPATA BAHUAJA SONENE (AMAZONIA PERUANA)

Researchers have discovered in the protected area large numbers of species that are now rarely found elsewhere in the Amazon jungle  Bahuaja sonene due to poaching, particularly tapirs and spider monkeys, but also jaguars, white-lipped peccary, medium-sized and large monkeys and caiman. The rivers teem with giant river otters and beavers. Within the reserve, the lower elevation zone is dominated mostly by Amazonian bird species, the ones that are at or near their upper elevation limits, and by species that are restricted (or partially restricted) to the narrow band of rain forest found on the lower slopes of the Andes. Because of the growing deforestation rate along this latitudinal border in other parts of the Andes, this ecosystem is one of these most threatened in all of South America. A relatively large portion of this ecosystem is found within the Bahuaja-Sonene National Park. In a 5,000-hectare area where La Torre River feeds into Tambopata, almost 575 bird species have been registered. In addition, this same area contains approximately 1200 butterfly species, making its conservation extremely important (CI Peru).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tambopata National Reserve and Bahuaja Sonene National Park are located contiguously in the Amazon region of southern Peru. They have a wealth of wildlife and natural beauty. Initially the protected area reserved as early in the year 90 and then through a long process of consultation and negotiation with stakeholders the final areas for reserve and national park were determined area was created.

Biodiversity Tambopata tours and Bahuaja Sonene

The area has great diversity of habitats, allowing the existence of species in abundance. The Tambopata River is considered one of the ecosystems in terms of biodiversity in the world. In the protected area you can find a high diversity of plant communities, several forest species of economic importance such as cedar (Cedrela odorata), mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), screw (Cedrelinga sp.), Chestnut (Bertholetia excelsa), palm trees as pona (Iriartea ventricosa), palm (Mauritia flexuosa), among others. In terms of fauna, the area hosts a large population of Wolf River Pteronura brasiliensis endangered species; Likewise, vulnerable species such as the anteater (Giant anteater), Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus), black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus), jaguar (Panthera onca), roseate spoonbill (Ajaija ajaja), taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis), Anaconda (Eunectes murinus) among others.

rio heath tambopata reserva

Threats Peru: The Tambopata National Reserve and Bahuaja Sonene

The Tambopata National Reserve and Bahuaja Sonene are vulnerable by various threats to which they are subject. The major threats are agriculture and land grabs, gold mining, illegal logging, excessive extraction of other natural resources (bushmeat, fish, fruit and palm leaves, etc.), paving the road Cusco – Puerto Maldonado and increased migration to the region to increase pressure and threats on the protected area processes.

Access Tambopata tours

There are multiple paths to reach the protected area. Air from Cusco to Puerto Maldonado, capital of the province of Tambopata and capital of the department of Madre de Dios, where an airport to commercial flights arriving daily. By land, from the city of Cusco on the road to Puerto Maldonado to the north of the protected area. In the department of Puno from Juliaca to Putina Punko towards the south of the protected area and from Juliaca through San Gabán to the Inambari river. Access by boat is conducted through the Madre de Dios and Tambopata shallow draft boats. Since Bolivia is no river access by the Madre de Dios and Heath.

Physical description Tambopata tours

Registered meteorological data indicate that the average annual temperature is 26 ° C, fluctuating between 10 and 38 ° C, with annual rainfall ranging on average between 1600 (1) 2400 mm. Climatological and meteorological records indicate a predominance of winds from the northeast with speeds ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 m / sec; monthly precipitation between 61.5 and 435 mm and a monthly relative humidity between 80 and 89%. The protected area has a characteristic pattern of rain most of the Peruvian Amazon. On the other hand, according to the climatological map of Peru (ONERN), the area has sub-humid and semi warm humid and warm climates (3000 mm and 25 ° C average), (1700 mm and average 26 ° C), very humid and semi warm (4000 mm and 23 ° C). The protected area features eight life zones: subtropical moist forest, tropical rain forest, subtropical wet forest, subtropical montane wet forest, subtropical rainforest, tropical montane rain forest, subtropical low montane rainforest, montane subtropical rainforest semisaturated low, and four life zones in transition: subtropical humid subtropical rainforest to humid subtropical forest to tropical, subtropical humid tropical forest, tropical montane wet forest to tropical rainforest, forest.

In the protected area are some ecosystems such as forest terrace, middle terrace forest flood, forest high flood terrace, upland forest on clay soil, upland forest on sandy-clay soil, forest land sign on sandy soil, permanently flooded swamp forest, swamp forest, forest pacal or bamboo, tropical plains. The main rivers that surround or cross the area are the Tambopata, Heath, Malinowski, the Tower, Tavara, Candamo Macaw, among others smaller. The area has lakes or lakes related to the meandering nature of rivers, palm swamps and seasonally flooded areas. The rivers and streams have patterns or flow variations depending on time of year, whether rainy season (November to March) and dry season (May to September) respectively.

Biodiversity Tambopata tours:

The protected area is home to a large part of Peru’s biodiversity. Tambopata presents a wide variety of habitats, leading to the existence of abundant species. On the eastern slopes of the Andes can be seen high levels of endemism, so it is expected that the protected area also recorded a high concentration of high endemism and biodiversity for various groups of organisms (7). The Tambopata River is considered one of the ecosystems in terms of biodiversity in the world. As an indicator of this vast wealth, it can be mentioned that in an area of just 550 have found 91 species of mammals, 570 birds, 127 reptiles and amphibians, 94 fish, among other surprising records.

Vegetation in Tambopata Tours:

In the Tambopata River in Madre de Dios near the Puno foothills dense clumps of bamboo, unique habitat of various species of birds and mammals are presented. It is mature forest areas of floodplain forests typical low mountains. The flora in the national reserve (+/- 1400 species of vascular plants) is fairly typical of the southwest Amazon Basin of Peru.

The Heath River and surrounding plains are a unique ecosystem in Peru. The pampas are periodically flooded grasslands. These are renewed through occasional fires in the dry season, preventing the progression of invasive vegetation of the jungle. Small woods or groups of trees with varied vegetation grow like islands in the pampa. The flatter areas are dominated by grasses, sedges and other herbs, with some scattered shrubs.

In the protected area you can find a high diversity of plant communities, several forest species of economic importance such as cedar (Cedrela odorata), mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), screw (Cedrelinga sp.), Chestnut (Bertholetia excelsa), palm trees as pona (Iriartea ventricosa), palm (Mauritia flexuosa), huasaí (Euterpe sp.), ungurahui (Jessenia bataua).

Tambopata Wildlife tours:

It has been found that protected large populations of species in many parts of the Peruvian Amazon are now rare due to poaching, especially tapirs and spider monkeys, but also jaguars, peccaries, medium and large monkeys and alligators in the area. In rivers several groups of otters and sea otters are found.

In the area of low hills, birds composition is dominated by those Amazonian species that are at or near their upper elevational limits; and species that are wholly or partially restricted to a very narrow band of rain forest on the lower slopes of the Andes. Due to the growing deforestation rate along this latitudinal border in other regions of the Andes, this area of low hills is one of the most threatened habitats throughout South America. A significant portion of this ecosystem is in the Bahuaja Sonene National Park.

Near the mouth of the river La Torre to Tambopata River, nearly 575 species of birds have been recorded in an area of 5000 ha. Also, this area is home to over 1,200 species of butterflies, this fact determines the extraordinary importance of preserving the area (10). There has been a total of 74 species to the Pampas del Heath and surrounding areas. These include the swamp deer (Marsh deer), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the giant anteater (Giant anteater), bush dog-eared (Atelocynus microtis), 28 species of amphibians and 17 species of reptiles .

The wildlife of Peru Victor Pulido, various species in different condition are in the protected area. There are species in danger of extinction such as the otter (Lutra longicaudis) and the otter (Pteronura brasiliensis); vulnerable species such as the anteater (Giant anteater), giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus), black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons), black capuchin (Cebus apella), woolly monkey (lagothrix lagothricha), jaguar (Panthera onca), roseate spoonbill (Ajaija ajaja), paujil (Crax globulosa) charapa turtle (Podocnemis expansa), taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis), anaconda (Eunectes murinus); rare species such as the hairy armadillo (Dasypus pilosus), black pichico (Callimico goeldii), bush dog (Bush dog) dog midden (Procyon cancrivorus) (Mazama chunyi) pacarana (Pacarana), harpy eagle (Harpia harpya); species indeterminate status as musmuqui (Aotus miconax), short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis), manco (Mustela africana), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), margay (Margay), yaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguaroundi), Montagu deer (Mazama gouazoubira ), parrots and macaws (Ara ararauna, Ara militaris militaris, Ara macao, Ara chloroptera, Ara severa castaneifrons, Ara couloni) motelo (Geochelone carbonaria), black caiman (Caiman sclerops) mantona (Epicrates cenchria).

Travel in Amazonian Peru using the circuit of the Peruvian Rainforest Puerto Maldonado – Tambopata tours to meet and observe wildlife in the jungle.

PUERTO MALDONADO: A city of Madre de Dios. It was created in 1902 and is the capital of Peru’s biodiversity. Puerto Maldonado is located south east of Peru, was founded in 1902 in honor of the conquistador Juan Alvarez Maldonado and others indicate that in honor of Fausto Maldonado, expedicioncita cauchero in the nineteenth century. One of the best known caucheros I approach the Contamana in 1894 was Fermín Fitzcarrald, which started from Iquitos to the Manu and Madre de Dios rivers. It is located 183 meters above sea level, has an average annual temperature of 26 ° to 34 °. Rainy season from December to March. Access by air from Lima 1 ’30 and from Cusco 45′ mnts. Can be reached by road from Lima to Puerto Maldonado in 39 or 44 hours. For the adventurous can go from Cusco to Paucartambo by land and part of Boca Manu River waterway by the Mother of God in 4 days of travel.

A. CIRCUIT EL DORADO OF PUERTO MALDONADO

For years different trekkers have sought unsuccessfully EL DORADO and PAITITI in the Peruvian jungle, one of the first was Pedro de Candia and he was followed by many Spaniards without achieving success. Years later the rubber boom had emerged and new expedicioncitas as Fausto Maldonado, Fermín Fitzcarrald
among others.

B. THE MANU

It is one of the world’s largest protected natural areas, has an area of 1692.137 hectares. In 1977 he was recognized as the Manu Biosphere Reserve and in 1987 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This reserve is located between the provinces of Paucartambo (Cusco) and Manu (Mother of God) in which three ecological zones are distinguished: High Andes, high forest or jungle and low jungle so diverse climates are presented.

In Manu you can find:

  • 800 species of birds in the Manu.
  • 200 species of mammals (100 kinds of bats) also cock of the rock, the monkey Choro, spectacled bear, jaguar Tigrillos, Wolf River among others.
  • On the lower floor you can see fruits, flowers and trees over 45 meters high x 3 in diameter
  • There are 30 rural communities that maintain the native language, inhabiting since time immemorial as Machiguenga, Anahuaca, Piro, Nahua, Huashipari etc.
    Have been preserved petroglyphs Pusharo, there are archaeological remains in Mameria not yet been studied.
  • Visiting this regional park is restricted, however shelters were installed in the lower basin of the river Manu, where visitors wanting to get in touch with nature are received.

Visits may be at least 5 days to a month depending on where they want to enter, they must be accompanied by a guide who knows the route.

C. NATIONAL RESERVE TAMBOPATA

It is located between the basins of the Rio Tambopata and Heath, has an area of 274,690 hectares, with an altitude of 300 masl shared with the provinces of
Sandia and Carabaya in Puno. The book contains in its varied indoor species wildlife tourism, cultural and scientific importance.

Have been recorded in the reserve of Tambopata:

  • 575 species of birds in the reserve tambopata
  • 1200 butterflies in tambopata
  • 103 dragonflies in tambopata
  • 135 dawn ants
  • 103 mammals
  • Besides tropical flora.

C.1 COLPA MACAW “THE CHUNCHO”

Located in the Tambopata National Reserve, is a formation of the banks by the action of erosion of the river, which laid bare soils rich in minerals and organic compounds.

It is known for the impressive spectacle as it is a natural supply used by a large number of parrots and macaws as a supplement to your diet, these birds arrive in flocks to the lick you can clearly see every day from 6 am from Chuncho the gorge of the river.

C.2 COLPA MACAW FOR THE “COLORADO”

It is located in Tambopata National Reserve Tambopata river banks has 500 m wide x 50 m high. Every day at 6 am going to start eating colpeo ie clay, can be spotted 15 species of birds 6 macaws and parrots 9.

IMPROVEMENT OF TOURIST SERVICES IN THE SECTION Iñapari – Inambari, TOURS TAMBOPATA PROVINCE, REGION MOTHER OF GOD.

Access to the area of intervention: The means of access to the area of intervention is through the inter-oceanic corridor of southern Peru – Brazil, via interconnecting the border town of Iñapari to seaports in the Pacific.

TAMBOPATA LOCATION TOURS AND Inambari:

  • Region: Madre de Dios
  • Province: Tambopata
  • Districts: Tambopata and Inambari

Description of tourism resources in the Peruvian jungle:

The area is part of the road corridor is made up of Puerto Maldonado, capital of Madre de Dios region and Inambari District, which, according to the National Inventory of Tourism Resources, have attractive numbers, with potential to be exploited, to the increased flow of visitors to travel to the jungle.

The following table shows the relationship of tourism resources registered in the intervention area shows that previous analysis could be intercepted on the idea project to provide counseling services, tourist information, enjoy the scenery, among others.

Tourist Resources Inventoried in the Districts of Tambopata and Inambari.

  1. A.C.P FUNDO REFUGIO KERENDA HOMET
  2. FOREST “Parayso”
  3. FOREST swamp “AMARUPARQUE”
  4. FOREST Aguajal Carachamayo
  5. RESCUE AND REHABILITATION CENTER AMAZON SHELTER
  6. COLORADO MACAW COLPA
  7. COLPA MACAW FOR Pariamanu
  8. COLPA MACAW THE CHUNCHO
  9. CLAY CENTER CHORRERA
  10. COLLPA CHORRERA
  11. BIG LICK PASTORA
  12. NATIVE COMMUNITY HELL
  13. PALMA REAL NATIVE COMMUNITY
  14. NATIVE COMMUNITY SONENE
  15. NATIVE COMMUNITY THREE ISLANDS
  16. FEAST OF SAN JUAN
  17. HAVANA COUNTRY INN
  18. LAKE CATICOCHA
  19. LAKE COCOCOCHA
  20. I CONVICTED AND SENTENCED LAKE II
  21. LAKE MISSISSIPPI
  22. LAKE Sachavacayoc
  23. LAKE SANDOVAL
  24. THREE LAKE CHIMBADAS
  25. LAKE Tupac Amaru
  26. LAKE VALENCIA
  27. LAKE CHORRERA
  28. BUTTERFLY INKATERRA “BUTTERFLY HOUSE”
  29. VIEWPOINT MIGUEL GRAU
  30. VIEWPOINT NATURAL THREE ISLANDS
  31. VIEWPOINT PASTORA BIG
  32. MUNICIPAL OBELISCO BIODIVERSITY
  33. BIG BEAUTIFUL BEACH
  34. BEACH BAND
  35. PLAZA DE ARMAS TAMBOPATA
  36. PLAYA BOTAFOGO
  37. BEACH CAYMAN
  38. BEACH MIRANDA
  39. PLAYA DEL CARMEN VIRGIN
  40. TRADITIONAL NATIVE VILLAGE COMMUNITY MOUTH Pariamanu
  41. CONTINENTAL BRIDGE
  42. BROKEN CAT
  43. NATIONAL RESERVE TAMBOPATA
  44. RIVER MOTHER OF GOD
  45. RIVER TAMBOPATA
  46. serpentarium TROPIFAUNA
  47. Gullies WITH AVIAN FAUNA

Inambari District its tourism resources are:

  1. CEJA FOREST JUNGLE LORD OF THE SUMMIT
  2. NATIVE COMMUNITY Arasaeri
  3. RIO COLLPA SNEET MESERE
  4. VIEWPOINT SANTA ROSA
  5. VIEWPOINT NATURAL AMANEEWAJA
  6. TRADITIONAL NATIVE PEOPLE OF THE COMMUNITY “MOUTH Inambari”
  7. BROKEN AITMAWE
  8. BROKEN BUENQUEME
  9. BROKEN THE LOOKOUT
  10. BROKEN LORD OF THE SUMMIT

In this regard, intervention components of the idea of the project are:

  • Improving facilities Immigration Control Since Peru-Brazil border.
  • Implementation of Tourism Paradores (preliminarily, Union Progreso, Quincemil, Ccocha Pueblo).
  • Implementation of tourist signs on the stretch of road Iñapari – Puerto Maldonado – Inambari.
  • Implementation of tourist viewpoints.
For the definition of the components to intervene, the following initial actions will take place:
  • Identification and preliminary selection of tourist resources to intervene.
  • Coordination with the concessionaire of the Interoceanic Highway (IIRSA), in order to determine whether any intervention that falls in signaling, would be in charge of them, so as not to generate duplicity.

Tourist inflow in the Amazon

More than 30,000 Brazilian tourists arrive annually in Madre de Dios thanks to transportation facilities offered by the Panama Canal since its inauguration in 2010, with about 2,500 tourists arriving monthly Madre de Dios from Brazil to visit ecological reserves and as a step bound to the regions of Cusco and Arequipa.

Importance of the Peruvian Amazon

The Interoceanic Highway South, through three natural regions benefiting the Madre de Dios, Puno, Cusco, Arequipa, Apurimac, Ayacucho, Moquegua, Tacna and Ica. In this way the people of the area have greater opportunities for development to be streamlined communication, commerce and tourism in the area; allowing entry to tourists and increasing cultural exchange between Peru, the west-central region of Brazil and northern Bolivia.

In the area are the National Park of Manu and Bahuaja Sonene National Park both in Madre de Dios-Cusco, Tambopata-Candamo in Madre de Dios. The project idea you can benefit visitors by installing hostels, viewpoints, signage, among others, and thereby greater enjoyment of tourist resources that are close to the road was achieved.

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Tambopata Macaw Clay Lick Chuncho 4 Days 3 Night

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